Matrix Exports
Matrix Exports
Vinayaka Complex, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Boilers

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other boil. (In North America the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is not actually to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications,[1][2] including central heating, boiler-based power generation,
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Fire Tube Boiler
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Fire Tube Boiler

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. (In North America the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is not actually to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications,[1][2] including central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

Burner -------is a device which converts energy from fuel into heat energy which is transfeered to water through Boiler which results in Steam.

Essential Features of Good Burners

  • High combustion efficiency
  • Part load performance
  • Easy change over of fuels in case of dual fuel firing
  • Ease of mounting
  • Robust and compact design
  • Noiseless operation
  • Easy accessibility to all parts for inspection and maintenance
  • Reliable components for continuous service
  • Easy adjustment of air / fuel ratio.
  • Suitability of components for specific fuel characteristics
  • Low power consumption and preheating of air
  • Provision for various safety interlocks

Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety.


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Water Tube Boilers
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Water Tube Boilers

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. (In North America the term "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is not actually to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications,[1][2] including central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

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Steam Locomotive Boiler
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Steam Locomotive Boiler

Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperature; that is, saturated Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant because the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing aneconomizer that heats the feed water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using wet steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence. Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the temperature of the steam in the superheater rises, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[6] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

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Super Heated Boilers
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Super Heated Boilers

Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperature; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant because the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing aneconomizer that heats the feed water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using wet steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.
Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the temperature of the steam in the superheater rises, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler. Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the
turbine blading and associated piping.

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Supercritical  Steam Generator
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Supercritical Steam Generator

Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the fluid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which turns electrical generator from which power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that point may be a mix of steam and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This results in slightly less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" actually occurs in this device.

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Hydronic Boilers
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Hydronic Boilers

Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes. They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses in northern Europe (where they are commonly combined with domestic water heating), as opposed to the forced-air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common in North America. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the case of single pipe systems, until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid throughout the home typically by way of radiators, baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be heated by any means...gas, wood, fuel oil, etc., but in built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a pump. The name "boiler" can be a misnomer in that, except for systems using steam radiators, the water in a properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Some new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency. These boilers are referred to as condensing boilers because they are designed to extract the heat of vaporization of the flue gas water vapor. As a result of the lower flue gas temperatures, flue gas water vapor condenses to liquid and with dissolved carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid. The carbonic acid would damage a typical boiler by corroding the flue and fireside boiler heating surfaces. Condensing boilers solve this problem by routing the carbonic acid down a drain and by making the flue exposed to the corrosive flue gas of stainless steel or PVC. Although condensing boilers are becoming more popular, they are still less common than other types of hydronic boilers as they are more expensive. Hydronic systems are being used more and more in new construction in North America for several reasons. Among those are:
  • They are more efficient and more economical than forced-air systems (although initial installation can be more expensive, because of the cost of the copper and aluminum).
  •  The baseboard copper pipes and aluminum fins take up less room and use less metal than the bulky steel ductwork required for forced-air systems.
  • They provide more even, less fluctuating temperatures than forced-air systems. The copper baseboard pipes hold and release heat over a longer period of time than air does, so the furnace does not have to switch off and on as much. (Hydronic systems heat mostly through conduction and radiation, whereas forced-air heats mostly throughforced convection. Air has much lower thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity than copper, so the conditioned space warms up and cools down more quickly than with hydronic. See also thermal mass.)
  • They tend to not dry out the interior air as much as forced air systems, but this is not always true. When forced air duct systems are air-sealed properly, and have return-air paths back to the furnace (thus reducing pressure differentials and therefore air movement between inside and outside the house), this is not an issue.
  • They do not introduce any dust, allergens, mold, or (in the case of a faulty heat exchanger) combustion byproducts into the living space.

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